The central theme is the development of fully automated quantitative microscopy, or scanning cytometry, for biomedical applications. The instrumentation research areas include high performance autofocus, real-time image segmentation and image fluorometry. These are key components for a scanning cytometer capable of accurate, exhaustive analyses of the 100,000 – 10,000,000 cells on a single microscope slide at optical resolution (usually ? 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 pixels). Quantifying the measurement accuracy and/or precision of each step in the scanning cytometry process (e.g., autofocus followed by image segmentation, fluorometry and cell classification) are key components of the research. Current and proposed biomedical research areas include cervical (Pap smear) cancer screening, rare event detection (e.g., locating fetal cells in maternal circulation for genotyping), and chemotherapy testing using time-lapse scanning cytometry of living cells cultured on the microscope stage.